Aortic stenosis is a condition whereby the aortic valve is narrowed and does not open or close sufficiently and can affect the patient’s cardiac output. This may be the result of a Unicuspid (single) or Biscuspid (dual cusp) valve that has not formed completely during gestation. This may lead to increased pressures within the Left Ventricle (LV) due to the increased force required to eject blood from the LV, as well as potentially blood leaking backwards in the LV, causing the LV to dilate and become enlarged. The LV may also thicken (or hypertrophy) as a result of increased force required to eject blood from the LV1.
Many children with AS may not necessarily have symptoms until the stenosis becomes severe enough, limiting cardiac output.
Children may present with:
Aortic Stenosis can be diagnosed through:
Patients with paediatric AS rarely require intervention upon diagnosis. AS is a progressive disease that may require correction of the diseased valve once the narrowing is considered critical or the patient is symptomatic.