Dr Chris Raffel is an Interventional Cardiologist with current appointments at the Prince Charles Hospital, St Andrew’s War Memorial Hospital, St Stephen’s Hospital, Harvey Bay Hospital and the St Andrew’s Specialist Centre. He has particular clinical interests in percutaneous valve therapies, coronary, and structural heart disease management and treatment.

He completed his Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery at the University of Auckland in New Zealand in 1994 and commenced his advanced training at the Green Lane Hospital in Auckland where he obtained his FRACP (Fellowship from the Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

Dr Raffel moved to Boston, USA to continue his training and experience, starting as a Research Fellow in Medicine (Cardiology) followed by a Fellow in Interventional Cardiology at the Massachusetts General Hospital. He then spent two years at the Harvard Medical School as a Clinical & Research Fellow in Medicine and Research Fellow in Radiology.

He continued to further his training completing various programs including the MitraClip Percutaneous Mitral Valve Repair Training Program at the MitraClip Centre of Excellence, (University of Virginia Medical Centre), and Edwards Transcatheter Heart Valve Training Program in Vancouver, Canada.

Dr Raffel has frequently and extensively contributed to research, teaching, and the medical community. He has multiple Advisory roles including the St Jude Medical Optical Coherence Tomography & FFR Program, and many other committees and societies. He has multiple journal editorial and reviewer roles with a substantial list of publications and frequently presents at international and domestic events.

Procedures & Conditions

Procedures Performed
  • General Cardiology
  • Percutaneous Valve Therapies
  • Intravascular Imaging and Physiology
  • Pathogenesis and Management of Acute Coronary Syndromes
  • Novel Methods of Invasive and Non-Invasive Intravascular Imaging
  • Biomarkers in Cardiac Disease
  • MitraClip Transcatheter Mitral Valve Repair Device
  • Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI)
Conditions Treated
  • Adult Structural Heart Disease
  • Aortic Stenosis
  • Mitral Valve Disease
  • Mitral Regurgitation
  • Acute and Chronic Coronary Artery Disease
  • Acute and Chronic Structural Heart Disease
  • Congenital Heart Disease


  • Visiting Interventional Cardiologist
    St Andrew's War Memorial Hospital 2015 - Present
  • Clinical & Interventional Cardiologist, CardioVascular Clinics
    St Andrew's Specialist Centre Present
  • Visiting Interventional Cardiologist
    St Stephen's Hospital 2015 - Present
  • Visiting Cardiologist
    Hervey Bay Hospital 2010 - Present
  • Interventional Cardiologist, Cardiology Program
    The Prince Charles Hospital 2008 - Present
  • Senior Lecturer
    University of Queensland 2016 - Present
  • A/Clinical Director, Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory
    The Prince Charles Hospital 2013-2014
  • Director of Operations, Cardiology Laboratory for Integrative Physiology and Imaging
    Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, USA 2007-2008
  • Cardiologist
    Cardiology Department & Coronary Care Unit, Auckland City Hospital, New Zealand 2005
  • Locum Cardiologist
    Echocardiography Laboratory, Auckland City Hospital and Green Lane Clinical Centre. New Zealand 2003-2005
  • Locum Cardiologist
    Cardiology Department, Auckland Hospital, New Zealand 2003

Memberships & Awards

Professional Memberships and Affiliations
  • 2016 - Present

    Wesley Medical Research Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery Research Committee

  • 2014 - Present

    Australia and New Zealand Endovascular Therapies (ANZET) Steering Committee

  • 2013 - Present

    American Heart Association Council on Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology

  • 2011 - Present

    Publications Committee, Massachusetts General Hospital Optical Coherence Tomography Registry

  • 2011 - Present

    The Prince Charles Hospital Foundation Research Committee

  • 2009 - Present

    American College of Cardiology

  • 2003 - Present

    American Heart Association Council on Clinical Cardiology

  • 2003 - Present

    American Heart Association - Professional Member

  • 2003 - Present

    Fellow of the Royal Australasian College of Physicians

  • 2010

    Distinction in Clinical Teaching Award, Northside Clinical School, University of Queensland

  • 2007

    Cordis Interventional Fellowship, Boston, Massachusetts

  • 2006

    Young Investigator Award, Cardiac Society of Australia & New Zealand Scientific Meeting 2005

  • 2005

    Advanced Cardiology Preceptorship

  • 2004

    White Parsons Fellowship

  • 1994

    JDK North Prize in Clinical

Research & Publications


1. Jahangiri B, Raffel OC. Giant Right Atrium. N Engl Med. 2016 Aug 11; 375

2. Markham R, Murdoch D, Govindasamy J, Raffel C, Walters D. Shirtfront Myocardial Infarction: Traumatic Coronary Plaque Disruption Secondary to a Football Tackle. Heart Lung Circ. 2016 Nov 24. pii: S1443-9506 (16) 31669-9. doi.

3. Bellapart J, Cuthbertson K, Dunster K, Diab S, Platts DG, Raffel OC, Gabrielian L, Barnett A, Paratz J, Boots R, Fraser JF. Cerebral Microcirculation during Experimental Normovolaemic Anemia. Front Neurol. 206 Feb 2;7-6.

4. Crowhurst JA, Savage M, Subban V, Incani A, Raffel OC, Poon K, Murdoch D, Saireddy R, Clarke A, Aroney C, Bett N, Walters DL. Factors Contributing to Acute Kidney Injury and the Impact on Mortality in Patients Undergoing Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement. Heart Lung Circ. 2016 Mar; 25 (3): 282-9.

5. Yeaw X, Murdoch DJ, Wijeskera V, Sedgwick JF, Whight CM, Pohlner PG, Raffel OC, Walters DL. Comparison of surgical repair and percutaneous stent implantation for native coarctation of the aorta in patients >/=15 years of age. Int J Cardiol. 2015;203:3.

6. Yates DJ, Savage ML, Walters DL, Raffel OC. Retrospective Study of First-Generation Drug-Eluting Stent Methods in the Treatment of Native Vessel In-Stent Restenosis in Real-World Clinical Practice. Heart Lung Circ. 2015;(1444-2892 (Electronic)).

7. Subban V, Murdoch D, Savage ML, Crowhurst J, Saireddy R, Poon KK, Incani A, Belt N, Burstow DJ, Scalia GM, Clarke A, Raffel OC, Aroney CN, Walters DL. Outcomes of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation in High Surgical Risk and Inoperable Patients with Aortic Stenosis – A Single Australian Center Experience. Intern Med J. 2015;(1445-5994 (Electronic)).

8. Murdoch D, Shaw R, Raffel OC, Walters DL. Next generation TAVI with the Lotus Valve System: a repositionable and fully retrievable transcatheter aortic valve prosthesis. Minerva Cardioangiol. 2015;63(4):343-57.

9. Minami Y, Wang Z, Aguirre AD, Lee S, Uemura S, Soeda T, Vergallo R, Raffel OC, Barlis P, Itoh T, Lee H, Fujimoto J, Jang IK. Quantitative analysis of the side-brand orifice after bifurcation stenting using en-face processing of OCT images: a comparison between Xience V and Resolute Integrity stents. Coron Artery Dis. 2016;27(1):19-28.

10. Subban V, Savage M, Crowhurst J, Poon K, Incani A, Aroney C, Tesar P, Clarke A, Raffel C, Murdoch D, Platts D, Burstow D, Saireddy R, Bett N, Walters DL. Transcatheter valve-in-valve replacement of degenerated bioprosthetic aortic valves: a single Australian centre experience. Cardiovasc Revasc Med. 2014;15(8):388-92.

11. Subban V, Bell R, Raffel OC, Small A, Savage M, Incani A, Walters DL. A rare mechanism of very late bare metal stent thrombosis–role of optical coherence imaging in its evaluation and management. Heart Lung Circ. 2014;23(2):190-2.

12. Savage ML, Poon KK, Johnston EM, Raffel OC, Incani A, Bryant J, Rashford S, Pincus M, Walters DL. Pre-hospital ambulance notification and initiation of treatment of ST elevation myocardial infarction is associated with significant reduction in door-to-balloon time for primary PCI. Heart Lung Circ. 2014;23(5):435-43.

13. Samardhi H, Walters DL, Raffel C, Rateesh S, Harley C, Burstow D, Pohlner P, Aroney C. The long-term outcomes of transcoronary ablation of septal hypertrophy compared to surgical myectomy in patients with symptomatic hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2014;83(2):270-7.

14. Saireddy R, Subban V, Lamana A, Clarke A, Scalia GM, Raffel OC, Walters DL. Immediate Closure of Paravalvular Leak after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation. Heart Lung Circ. 2014, Nov;23(11):e251-3.

15. Subban V, Incani A, Clarke A, Aroney C, Scalia GM, Crowhurst JA, Raffel OC, Walters DL. Conservative management and resolution of a contained rupture of aortic annulus following transcatheter valve replacement. JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2013;6(6):e33-4.

16. Poon K, Incani A, Small A, Raffel OC. Drug eluting stents trapping intramural hematoma in spontaneous coronary artery dissection and healing pattern at six months: optical coherence tomography findings. Cardiovasc Revasc Med. 2013;14(3):183-6.

17. Luis SA, Poon K, Shetty R, Walters DL, Raffel OC. Optical coherence tomography of late acquired bare metal stent malapposition: bare metal stent *diverticulosis*. Heart Lung Circ. 2013;22(8):668-9.

18. Jia H, Abtahian F, Aguirre AD, LeeS, Chia S, Lowe H, Kato K, Yonetsu T, Vergallo R, Hu S, Tian J, Lee H, Park SJ, Jang YS, Raffel OC, Mizuno K, Uemura S, Itoh T, Kakuta T, Choi SY, Dauerman HL, Prasad A, Toma C, McNulty I, Zhang S, Yu B, Fuster V, Narula J, Virmani R, Jang IK. In vivo diagnosis of plaque erosion and calcified nodule in patients with acute coronary symdrome by intravascular optical coherence tomography. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013;62(19):1748-58.

19. Incani A, Lee JC, Poon KK, Crowhurst JA, Raffel OC, Walters DL. Normal functioning of a constrained CoreValve with DynaCT imaging demonstrating incomplete stent frame expansion. Int J Cardiol. 2013;163(1):e9-10.

20. Crowhurst JA, Campbell D, Raffel OC, Whitby M, Pathmanathan P, Redmond S, Incani A, Poon K, James C, Aroney C, Clarke A, Walters DL. Using DynaCT for the assessment of ilio-femoral arterial calibre, calcification and tortuosity index in patients selected for trans-catheter aortic valve replacement. Int J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2013;29(7):1537-45.

21. Bellapart J, Dunster KR, Diab S, Platts DG, Raffel C, Gabrielian L, Maybauer MO, Barnett A, Boots RJ, Fraser JF. Intracardiac echocardiaography guided transeptal catheter injection of microspheres for assessment of cerebral microcirculation in experimental models. Cardiol Res Pract. 2013;2013:595838.

22. Yamaki T, Kawasaki M, Jang IK, Raffel OC, Ishihara Y, Okubo M, Kubota T, Hattori A, Nishigaki K, Takemua G, Fujiwara H, Minatoguchi S. Comparison between integrated backscatter intravascular ultrasound and 64-slice multi-detector row computed tomography for tissue characterization and volumetric assessment of coronary plaques. Cardiovasc Ultrasound. 2012;10:33.

23. Samardhi H, Raffel OC, Savage M, Sirisena T, Bett N, Pincus M, Small A, Walters Dl. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy: an Australian single centre experience with medium term follow up. Intern Med J. 2012;42(1):35-42.

24. Poon KK, Crowhurst J, James C, Campbell D, Roper D, Chan J, Incani A, Clarke A, Tesar P, Aroney C, Raffel OC, Walters DL. Impact of optimising fluoroscopic implant angles on paravalvular regurgitation in transcatheter aortic valve replacements – utility of three-dimensional rotational angiography. EuroIntervention. 2012;8(5):538-45.

25. Poon KK, Clarke A, Luis SA, Wiemers P, Incani A, Scalia G, Tesar P, Raffel OC, Aroney CN, Walters DL. First Australian transapical mitral valve-in-valve implant for failed mitral bioprosthesis: how to do it. Heart Lung Circ. 2012;21(11):737-9.

26. Incani A, Lee JC, Poon KK, Raffel OC. Unconventional technique to catheterize an anomalous right coronary artery system. Int J Cardiol. 2012;159(3):e43-4.

27. Incani A, Lee JC, Poon KK, Burstow DJ, Raffel OC, Walters DL. Left atrial appendage closure for non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Heart Lung Circ. 2012;21(4):247-8.

28. Hamilton-Craig C, Strugnell WE, Raffel OC, Porto I, Walters DL, Slaughter RE. CT angiography with cardiac MRI: non-invasive functional and anatomical assessment for the etiology in newly diagnosed heart failure. Int J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2012;28(5):111-22.

29. Hamilton-Craig C, Raffel OC, Pincus M, Hansen M, Slaughter RE, Walters DL. Coronary CT angiography for patients with stable chest pain in the emergency department; an appraisal of current and emerging evidence. Intern Med J. 2012;42(2):226-8.

30. Feuchtner G, Loureiro R, Bezerra H, Rocha-Filho JA, Sarwar A, Pflederer T, Marwan M, Petranovic M, Raffel CO, Brady TB, Jang IK, Achenbach S, Cury RC. Quantification of coronary stenosis by dual-source computed tomography in patients: a comparative study with intravascular ultrasound and invasive angiography. Eur J Radiol. 2012;81(1):83-8.

More Publications available upon request. 

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  • Cardiology seminar, Green Lane Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand. Homocysteine in cardiovascular disease. (2001)
  • Grand round, Auckland Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand. Prosthetic valve dysfunction. (2001)
  • Cardiology seminar, Green Lane Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand. Endothelins in health and disease. (2002)
  • Cardiology seminar, Green Lane Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand. Medical management of aortic and mitral valve regurgitation. (2002)
  • Grand round, Middlemore Hospital, South Auckland, New Zealand. Prosthetic Valve Thrombosis. (2003)
  • Presenter, New Zealand Heart Valve Study meeting, annual regional Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand meeting in Taupo, New Zealand. Echocardiographic assessment of Aortic Regurgitation. (2004)
  • New England Interventional Cardiology Conference, Boston. Optical Coherence Tomography in practice. (2006)
  • Asia Pacific OCT Research Group 2008. 21/11/2008, Seoul, Korea. (2008)
  • Invited Lecture: Optical Coherence Tomography. Cardiology in Paradise Meeting, Bond University, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia (2009)
  • International Congress of Cardiology, 26-28 February 2010, Hong Kong. Faculty & Lecture: ICCM: Intervention and Vulnerable Plaque Imaging 27th February 2010: Next Generation OCT. (2010)
  • Australia & New Zealand Optical Coherence Tomography (ANZ OCT) Workshop, 7th May 2010, Melbourne Australia. Faculty & lecture: Atherosclerotic plaque characterisation. (2010)
  • American Heart Association Scientific Sessions 2010, Chicago, II, USA. Invited faculty. Panelist. Insight from Advanced Coronary Imaging: OCT, IVUS and Angioscopy. (2010)
  • ANZ CTO Conference, Brisbane, QLD. Invited Lecture: IV Imaging of CTO. (2010)
  • Australia and New Zealand Optical Conference Tomography (ANZ OCT) Workshop, 4th June 2011, Melbourne Australia. Faculty & lecture: OCT to examine atherosclerosis. (2011)
  • Invited Faculty, Panel member, Live case IV imaging demonstrator. ANZ CTO conference, Wellington, New Zealand. (2011)
  • Invited Speaker, St Jude Medical Imaging & Physiology Conference, Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Australia. Clinical Role of OCT, Clinical Role of FFR. (2012)
  • Lecture: Contemporary Anti-platelet therapy. Lilly Cardiology Nurse Symposium 2012.
  • Invited Faculty, Live case panel member. ANZ CTO conference 28-29 June, Sydney, Australia. (2012)
  • Invited Lecture, Holy Spirit Northside Hospital. IVUS in current clinical practice. (2012)
  • Invited Lecture: ACS Guidelines in Practice. Mackay QLD (2012)
  • Organiser, Faculty. 4th ANZ CTO Conference (13-14 June 2013), Brisbane, Australia.
  • Invited Lecture: Optical Coherence Tomography in Current Clinical Practice. 11th February 2013. Perth Interventional Cardiology Meeting. Perth, WA, Australia. (2013)
  • ¬†ASEANC Cardiovascular & Metabolic Forum 2013. Invited Faculty & Lecture: Plenary session lecture (10/5/13) – Intracoronary Imaging of Atherosclerosis; Workshop/Plenary session 4 (11/5/15) FRACP today – what does tomorrow bring. Career pathways, trips & tips. (2013)
  • Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand Annual Scientific Meeting 2013. Faculty & Co-chair of sessions: a) Clinical – Reducing cardiovascular risk, b)_Combined session Imaging and Interventional / Surgical – Imaging for interventions and free communication (2013)
  • Essential Therapies in Cardiology – FFR & OCT to Optimise PCI. 30th November 2013, Crowne Plaza Hotel, Auckland, New Zealand. Invited Faculty. Lectures: OCT in the cath lab 2016; I use OCT rather than FFR to assess lesions (debate). (2013)
  • Techno Practicum College Inaugral Scientific Meeting, 13th-15th March 2014, Sydney, Australia. Faculty, Lectures: MitraClip, Primary and Post Surgery, TAVI and MitraClip: My Best and Worst Cases, ‘TAVI and MitraClip: How to Run an Efficient and Affordable Program? TAVI Infrastructure – What you need (Chair) (2014)
  • Coronary Physiology and Imaging in the Cath Lab: State of the Art Symposium 4th – 5th April 2014. Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, Australia. Faculty and Invited Lecture. Lecture: How do I assess causes of Stent and Thrombosis or in-stent Restenosis with OCT? (2014)
  • World Congress of Cardiology, 4-7th May 2014, Melbourne, Australia. Invited Lecture & Live case demonstrator. Lecture: Optical Coherence Tomography in Contemporary PCI. (2014)
  • Advanced Cardiovascular Therapeutics 2014. ACT Intravascular Imaging & Physiology 19th and 20th July 2014, Chennai, India. Invited International Faculty, Lecturer, Live case demonstrator. Lectures: OCT – Principles and Image Acquisition, OCT guided PCI, I use OCT rather than IVUS. (2014)

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